Rules

HUME VETERAN CYCLING CLUB Inc. RACE RULES and REGULATIONS.
All Club Road Race meetings are under the control of the A.V.C.C., *V.V.C.C. (see below) and H.V.C.C. Rules and Regulations together with the Road Rules and Regulations of the Victorian Police and Vic. Roads.
All riders MUST keep to the correct side of the carriageway at all times during competition and including warm up/down.
Any rider crossing over double white lines may be fined and/or disqualified.
Riders, when shown an extended Red Flag and requested to Stop by an Official – MUST at all times STOP.
Both hands must remain on the handlebars before, during and after the finishing sprint . . .Victory salutes are prohibited in Veteran Racing.
It is the riders responsibility to ensure that their bicycle meets mechanical worthiness as stipulated in the  A.V.C.C. and V.V.C.C. regulations.

All riders compete at their own risk acknowledging that cycle racing can be a dangerous (sport) activity.
It is recommended that all competitors have appropriate ambulance cover.
Only Officially appointed vehicles/persons are permitted to follow and/or accompany any bike race organised and ran by the H.V.C.C.

* VVCC Rules, Regulations and Penalties
As Adopted 13th May 2015
 
General Racing Rules and Regulations
Rule 1.  Eligibility
Rule 2.  Age Qualification
Rule 3.  Misconduct
Rule 4.  Judging
Rule 5.  Flags
Rule 6.  Equipment and Clothing
Rule 7.  Mechanical Mishaps
Rule 8.  General Racing Rules
Rule 9.  Penalties
Rule 10. Prizes & Positions
Rule 11. Medical Certificates
Rule 12. Insurance Claims
Rule 13. Heat Policy
Rule 14. Club / Inter Club / Open Events
Rule 15. Cancellation of Races
Rule 16. Tail Lights
 –
A.V.C.C. – Criterium Racing Rules and Regulations
1. General Racing Rules
2. Race Procedures
 –
A.V.C.C. – Time Trial Rules and Regulations
General Rules and Guidelines
 –
A.V.C.C. – Road Racing Rules and Regulations
Additional Rules Relating to Championship Events
 –
A.V.C.C. – Track Racing Rules and Regulations
Age Groupings
Distances
Presentations
Sprint Racing Rules
Track Time Trials
Pursuits
General Rules
 –
National Championships
Prize Money, Entry Fees and Medals

General Racing Rules and Regulations

Rule 1.  Eligibility
(a) To be eligible to compete in any event run under the jurisdiction of the AVCC, the competitor must be a financial member of a Club affiliated to a State/Territory body affiliated with the AVCC and covered by AVCC insurance.

(b) Riders will not be permitted to start in races, nor racing licences issued to those seeking membership, if bicycle safety standards as set out by the AVCC, are compromised.

(c) All National Championships must be controlled by an AVCC accredited National Referee; all State/Territory championships or Opens by a National or State/Territory referee; all other events must be controlled by any accredited AVCC referee.

(d) No club or Open races shall be run unless under control of an AVCC accredited club/state or national referee and that the referee in control shall not participate in a race while acting in the capacity of referee.

(e) The controlling referee of the day shall be in control of an event and shall have the power to penalize riders, officials and members from the time he or she arrives at the race precinct and until such persons are clear of the precinct following the end of an event and to such time as the referee is able to interview the person(s) involved and the dispute is resolved.

(f) At least one qualified non-riding 1st Aid person must be in attendance at all races.

Rule 2.  Age Qualification
Membership of the AVCC is accepted on 1st January of the year in which a male reaches 35 years of age, or a female, 30 years of age.

Rule 3.  Misconduct
(a) A competitor or member who is guilty of misconduct, disobeying an official, using undesirable language, urinating in public, striking or attempting to strike another member during the progress of an event, or at a place where the event is being conducted, shall be suspended or fined, or both.

(b) Any entry on social media by a member of the AVCC that demeans ridicules, threatens or degrades another member or official of the Association, or its affiliates, may result in a penalty being imposed on that member, including suspension.

Rule 4.  Judging
The finish of a race shall be judged by the first part of a bike that reaches an ‘imaginary’ line approximately 343 mm above a finish line.

Rule 5.  Flags
A black and white chequered flag shall denote a race finish. A red flag denotes danger and cyclists must stop if directed by the official displaying the flag. If a red flag is displayed from an official vehicle in a controlled race, no cyclist may pass the vehicle until the flag has been withdrawn. A displayed green flag denotes safe to proceed.

Rule 6.  Equipment and Clothing
(a) Race numbers must be prominently displayed at all times. Numbers must not be folded or damaged in any way and must be returned after the finish.

(b) An Australian approved and securely fastened helmet conforming to standard AS/NZ/2063 must be worn on the head at all times while riding. Australian approved tear-drop helmets, including other time trial helmets or helmets that cover the ears cannot be used in road races but shall be allowed in road time trials, track time trials and pursuits.

(c) Competitors should be neatly attired at the start of a race and at after-race presentations. Racing jerseys must be designed so as to cover the upper arms and shoulders.

(d) Only equipment sanctioned and approved by the A.V.C.C. Inc. shall be permitted in races under its patronage. The bicycle shall be a conventional triangular frame made from materials suitable for bicycle construction. The maximum length shall not be more than 185cm. and a width of 50cm. Either 650cm, or 700cm wheels and drop handlebars shall be used.

For road events two efficient hand brakes and a free-wheel shall be used; Spinacci and ‘Tri’ bars are not to be used. For road time trials it may have either a fixed wheel or free-wheel system, standard time trial handlebars with handlebar extensions and elbow rests.

For track racing, in sprints and scratch races it shall have a fixed rear wheel. In time trials and pursuits free-wheel multiple gears, handlebar extensions and elbow rests may be used. ‘Flat Bars’ (Mountain bike style) shall not be permitted in any of the aforementioned disciplines. Handlebar ends must be plugged.

(e) It is an offence to compete on any bicycle unless it is mechanically sound and maintained to the highest safety standards. ‘Singles’ must be securely glued to the rim and road bicycles must be equipped with two efficient, independent brakes.

(f) i. Only conventional racing machines as described in rule 6(d) shall be used in AVCC events and no unfair aerodynamic advantage associated with a bicycle shall be allowed, nor any modifications or construction allowed that jeopardize safety.
ii. Bicycle gear and brake controls may be modified to accommodate individual needs, however, modified controls will be mounted on conventional handlebars on a conventional bicycle.
iii. Cameras attached to bicycles or to helmets or on the person, shall not be allowed in AVCC races.
iv. Until a decision is made by the UCI to allow disc brakes on road or time trial bikes, their use shall not be allowed in any AVCC event.
v. Mobile phones that are carried by riders shall be switched off during the course of a race in which they are participating, and shall only be used in an emergency. Similarly, the wearing of headphones and radio contact during the course of a race shall not be allowed.

Rule 7.  Mechanical Mishaps
(a) If a mechanical mishap occurs (a puncture, machine damage or a fall) approaching the finish of a race, the competitor may run with or carry the bicycle over the line and still qualify for a finishing prize.

(b) In a Criterium race if a mechanical mishap occurs (a puncture, machine damage or a fall), time out shall be allowed. The Race Referee shall determine the duration of the time out and the information conveyed to the competitors before the race. A competitor taking time out will not be allowed to gain advantage in terms of placing in the field when re-entering the race and must report to the referee to re-enter the race. Any rider who has been lapped by his/her own grade shall withdraw from the race at the showing of two laps to go board, or at the discretion of the referee. No rider shall take assistance from any grade other than his/her own. In the event of a breakaway lapping their grade, the sprint for minor places will be at the discretion of the referee.

Rule 8.  General Racing Rules
(a) All competitors must abide by the State/Territory traffic laws, which include keeping to the left of the carriageway on open roads and not crossing any white lines. Competitors should avoid unnecessarily obstructing other traffic.

(b) Dangerous riding, including the practice of saluting by removing one or both hands off the bars at a finish, will not be tolerated and the referee shall discipline any rider whom he/she deems to be guilty of this practice, or any other act that endangers other riders or road users.

(c) At any time during a race anyone suddenly veering, pushing or pulling, or in any other way causing dangerous obstruction shall be penalized. When a sprint occurs the sprint rules shall apply whereby sprinting riders shall keep to a straight line.

(d) Competitors who receive outside assistance during a road race, such as holding onto or receiving pace from a moving vehicle or from non-or retired competitors or who receive refreshments or bike assistance (unless specifically sanctioned beforehand by the Race Referee) shall be disqualified.

(e) A competitor who is lapped or caught by another grade other than his/her own in a scratch race must not interfere with, or assist any other competitor nor participate in any sprints. The lapped rider must give way to the passing rider or group. It is a serious offence to sit in a bunch or share pace once lapped.

(f) Officials and riders are deemed to be always under control of the Race Referee from the time that he or she enters, and remains present, in the event precinct.

(g) Riders are requested to be in their start position five-minutes before their allocated start time.

Rule 9.  Penalties
(a) Any riders breaching the above general racing rules shall be liable for a fine, disqualification, suspension or any combination of the three at the discretion of the referee.

(b) Any competitor fined by any club or State/Territory body shall not be permitted to compete in any race under any body affiliated to the AVCC until such time as the penalty or suspension has been finalized.

(c) Penalties shall be set by the relevant State/Territory body. In AVCC championships the penalties of the promoting State/Territory body shall apply.

(d) Appeals against a Referee’s decision shall be made in writing within thirty minutes of the decision being announced to the competitor or member. A deposit of $50 shall be paid and may be forfeited if the appeal is considered frivolous. The appeal board shall consist of three persons including and appointed by the most senior AVCC or State or Territory Referee present, providing that none are involved in any way with the dispute.

(e) Following the receipt of an appeal, the Appeal’s Board must arrange for a meeting of the person making the appeal and the appeals board as soon as possible after the appeal has been lodged.

Special Note: Under an agreement with Cycling Victoria, a rider suspended from competition by either Cycling Victoria or the VVCC shall automatically be suspended for the same period from competition with both bodies.

1. Failing to obey Police or officials directive – $100 and 1 month suspension
2. Disrespect and/or abuse of officials – $250 and 6 month suspension
3. Failing to wear an Australian approved helmet – $100 and race start refused
4. Failing to obey traffic signs or an official – $100 and 1 month suspension
5. Failing to keep left of centre of unmarked road – Up to $120 and disqualification from race
6. Failing to keep left of continuous white line – Up to $120 and disqualification from race
7. Failing to keep left of centre white line and double white lines – Up to $120 and disqualification from race
8. Dangerous riding – $100 and disqualification from race
9. Unseemly behaviour at venue – $100 and/or disqualification from race
10. Hand/s off handlebars in sprint (Victory Salute) – $100 and/or disqualification from race
11. Non return or damage of race number – $50
12. Urinating in public or on a public road – First offence: $100 + 4 weeks suspension. Second Offence: $200 + 3 months suspension

Rule 10.  Prizes & Positions
(a) Competitors who believe they have qualified for a prize shall claim their placings with the claims stewards immediately after the finish. Prizewinners shall attend prize-giving ceremonies unless they have been granted dispensation by the race organizer.

(b) In the event of a rider or riders being disqualified in a race, the referee at his or her discretion, will move the next placed rider or riders up to take the place or places of the disqualified rider or riders.

Rule 11.  Medical Certificates
A medical certificate is required when a member returns to competition after serious illness or injury.

Rule 12. Insurance Claims
The claimant must request his/her Club Secretary to obtain the relevant claim forms from the VVCC Secretary, or the claimant may download the forms from the AVCC website. After completing the forms the claimant returns them to their Club Secretary who forwards them to the VVCC Secretary, who sends them to the Insurer. The forms must be with the Insurer within 30 days of the accident.

Rule 13. Heat Policy
If the ambient temperature within one hour of the scheduled start time of VVCC events reaches 35 degrees Celsius or greater, then the Race Referee will cancel the race.

Rule 14. Club / Inter Club / Open Events
An Open Race shall be defined as one where there is an open invitation, and when nominations are called for in advance. Sanctions for such Open races shall require the approval of the controlling AVCC State body.

Rule 15. Cancellation of Races
In the event of a race being cancelled, for any reason, Aggregate points will not be awarded. Entry money will be refunded, with the exception of $5.00 per entry, which the host club/organisation may withhold to cover incurred costs.

Rule 16. Tail Lights
Tail Lights must be used in all events. The lights must be fixed to the bicycle and must be used on a fixed mode (not flashing). The light must be of sufficient illumination and position to be visible at a distance of 100 metres to the rear during competition.

A.V.C.C. – Criterium Racing Rules and Regulations
1. General
(a) In criteriums, the general racing rules and regulations shall apply including those rules relating to dress, race conduct and equipment.

(b) Officials and riders are deemed to be always under control of the race referee, from the time they enter, and remain present in the event precinct. Only AVCC National accredited Referees shall be allowed to officiate.

(c) While criteriums are generally held on closed circuits, if the criterium is held on an open road, all competitors must abide by the State/Territory traffic laws applicable to that state, which include keeping to the left of the carriageway and not crossing any white lines. Competitors should avoid unnecessarily obstructing other road users.

(d) Dangerous riding, including the practice of saluting by removing one or both hands off the bars in a finish, will not be tolerated and the referee shall discipline any rider whom he/she deems to be guilty of this practice, or any other act that endangers other riders or road users.

(e) At any time during a race that a sprint occurs the sprint rules shall apply whereby sprinting riders shall keep to a straight line. Anyone suddenly veering, pushing or pulling, or in any other way causing dangerous obstruction shall be penalized.

(f) Riders must report to the starter and line up for the start five minutes before their allotted time of start.

(g) The following, based on time, shall apply for national championships, distance will be subject to circuit size.

Men
70 years and over 25 mins plus 1 or two laps*
65-69 years 25 mins plus 1 or two laps*
65-69 years 30 mins plus 1 or two laps*
60-64 years 30 mins plus 1 or two laps*
55-59 years 35 mins plus 1 or two laps*
50-54 years 35 mins plus 1 or two laps*
45-49 years 40 mins plus 1 or two laps*
40-44 years 45 mins plus 1 or two laps*
35-39 years 45 mins plus 1 or two laps*
Women
70 years and over 25 mins plus 1 or two laps*
65-69 years 30 mins plus 1 or two laps*
60-64 years 30 mins plus 1 or two laps*
55-59 years 30 mins plus 1 or two laps*
50-54 years. 30 mins plus 1 or two laps*
45-49 years 40 mins plus 1 or two laps*
40-44 years 40 mins plus 1 or two laps*
35-39 years 40 mins plus 1 or two laps*
30-34 years 40 mins plus 1 or two laps*
* The number of additional laps (either one or two) shall be at the discretion of the organizer and will be based on the size of the circuit.

2. Race Procedures
(a) The timing for the finish will be determined by the decision of the timekeeper and referee.

(b) A lap board presenting 2 laps to go shall be shown to all competitors, and a bell shall be rung to signify the final lap of the race.

(c) At least three judges shall be present at the finish and shall record placings even if there is a camera recording the finish of the race. The referee shall determine the location of the pit area for spare wheels.

(d) If a mechanical mishap occurs during the course of a race (a puncture, machine damage or a fall), time out shall be allowed, although this will not be allowed if the rider is in the final two laps of the race. The race referee shall determine the duration of the time out and this information conveyed to the competitors at the race start. A competitor taking time out will not be allowed to gain advantage in terms of placing in the field and must report to the referee before re-entering the race.

(e) Any rider who has been lapped by his/her own grade shall withdraw from the race at the showing of the two laps to go board, or at the discretion of the referee unless they are riding for a placing, and will then be allowed to continue.

(f) No rider shall take assistance from any grade other than his/her own.

(g) In the event of a breakaway lapping their grade, the sprint for minor places will be at the discretion of the referee. A competitor who is lapped or caught by another grade other than his/her own grade, must not interfere with, or assist any other competitor nor participate in any sprints. The lapped rider must give way to the passing rider or group. It is a serious offence to sit in a bunch or share pace once lapped.

(h) Competitors who receive outside assistance during a criterium such as holding onto or receiving pace from a moving vehicle or from non-or retired competitors or who receive refreshments or bike assistance (unless specifically sanctioned beforehand by the race referee) shall be disqualified.

(i) A black and white chequered flag shall denote a race finish.

(j) A red flag denotes danger and cyclists must stop if directed by the official displaying the flag.

A.V.C.C. – Time Trial Rules and Regulations
(a) The Time Trial shall be preferably held on an out and home course.

(b) It is recommended that riders be graded, youngest starting first, through to oldest starting last.

NOTE – In Championships, riders shall be graded in five-year age groups.

(c) It is recommended that ladies start after the completion of the men.

(d) It is recommended that riders start at one-minute intervals, and shall be held up by a steward at the start.

(e) If a rider misses his/her start position, then a corresponding time-gap will be left. Under no circumstances will a rider be moved up. Each rider will start at his/her allocated start time. If he/she misses their start, their time will commence at the advertised time, and his/her time will be calculated from the original start position. A rider missing his/her start will be required to stop at the start line and put one foot on the ground before commencing. No flying starts will be permitted.

(f) Riders are requested to be in their start position five-minutes before their allocated start time.

(g) Once they have left the starter’s hands, no mechanical failures or punctures will allow a restart.

(h) Once the race has commenced, if a mechanical mishap or puncture occurs to a rider who has not started, that rider must approach the Referee. The Referee may start that rider at the rear of the field. The Referee will advise the timing stewards of the rider’s number. The rider’s time will be calculated from this revised position.

(i) During the course of the race, a rider must ride alone and unassisted, and shall not take shelter from another rider or vehicle. When overtaking another rider, he/she must pass as widely as safety will permit, and the overtaking/overtaken rider must not receive any drafting benefit from the other rider. When the overtaken rider has been passed, he/she shall drop back at least twenty metres.
m) The age-standards shall be based on the Australian Time Trial Association’s standards (ATTA) as periodically revised.

NOTE – In the Australian Championships, the Mockridge Cup Time Trial shall be 25kms. The handicap section will be calculated from the Age Standards as calculated for the individual rider’s age. The rider with the best adjusted Standard Time will be deemed the winner of the Mockridge Cup section.

The riders with the fastest unadjusted times in each division shall be awarded, Gold, Silver and Bronze medals, and cash prizes.

A.V.C.C. – Road Racing Rules and Regulations
Age groupings for Road Championships shall be as follows:

Male riders: 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70–74 years and in five-year age groupings thereafter.
Female riders: 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70–74 years and in five-year age groupings thereafter.

Championships’ venues shall be decided at Special or Annual General Meetings 24 months in advance.

Road Championship distances may be:
Men Women
80 years and over 35km 70 years and over 45km
75-79 years 50km 65-69 years 45km
70-74 years 55km 60-64 years 45km
65-69 years 65km 55-59 years 60km
60-64 years 65km 50-54 years. 60km
55-59 years 75km 45-49 years 60km
50-54 years 75km 40-44 years 60km
45-49 years 85km 35-39 years 60km
40-44 years 85km 30-34 years 60km
35-39 years 100km
All road distances are approximate and will depend on circuit size and difficulty of the course.
The promoter shall organize all road championships under age groupings.
A 25 km Individual Time Trial, a 40 km Road Teams Trial (State Teams), and Criterium Championships may be provided for.

A.V.C.C. – Track Racing Rules and Regulations
Age Groupings for Track Championships shall be as follows:
Male riders: 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70–74 years and in
five-year age groupings thereafter.

Female riders: 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70–74 years and in five-year age groupings thereafter.

Championships’ venues shall be decided at Special or Annual General Meetings 24 months in advance.

Distances
Male Riders:
1,000m Sprint for all Age Divisions
10,000m Scratch for all Age Divisions up to 54 years
5,000m Scratch for all Age Divisions over 55 years
3,000m Individual Pursuit for all Age Divisions up to 54 years
2,000m Individual Pursuit for all Age Divisions over 55 years
500m Individual Time Trial for all Age Divisions

Female Riders:
1,000m Sprint for all Age Divisions
5,000m scratch for all Age Divisions
2,000m Individual Pursuit for all Age Divisions
500m Individual Time Trial for all Age Divisions

All distances are approximate and will depend on the track dimensions.

Presentations
All medal presentations should take place as soon after the completion of events as is practically possible. Medal-winners will be expected to be present for the presentation ceremony and the Clerk of Course shall be responsible for ensuring that those involved are ready in time for the presentation.

Sprint Racing Rules
a) Riders shall be seeded according to the time recorded in a 200metre flying time trial with the fastest being matched in the first instance against the slowest. Riders shall proceed with fastest against slowest to the ¼ finals and finals. Each of these rounds shall be run as the best of three heats.

b) Depending on the decision of the organizers, the selection shall be for the top 12 placings, or top 8 placings. In the latter case, riders shall proceed straight to the ¼ finals.

c) Riders start positions shall be decided after drawing of lots or toss of coin supervised by the Referee in the presence of the riders or their representatives.

d) For the second round of the sprint the start positions of the riders on the track shall be reversed. If the match goes to three races, start positions shall be determined by the drawing of lots of toss of a coin.

e) During the final 200m, in a match sprint or a bunch race, even if launched before the final 200m mark, a rider shall remain in his/her lane and shall not overtake a rider on the inside of that rider who is in the sprinters lane. When overtaking, a rider shall ensure that he/she is at least a bicycle length clear before being allowed to drop into the inside lane. Riders shall not be allowed to switch so as to obstruct and prevent opponents from overtaking.

f) The leader on the track shall not perform a standstill for more than 30 seconds. Any rider doing so shall be disqualified. Stand still will not be allowed in the final lap of the race.

Track Time Trials
a) Three watches shall be used. Place-getters shall be those who record the three fastest rides. When available, electronic timing may also be used.

b) Riders must report to the Clerk of the Course and line up for the start five minutes before their allotted time of start. Only if a rider has mechanical trouble after reporting to the Clerk of Course shall a late start be granted. At the decision of the Clerk of Course the rider shall either be placed into a vacant spot, or shall be given a place of start at the end of the age division or field.

Pursuits
a) Matches shall be determined by times recorded in the Time Trial (500m as per schedule). The fastest rider will be matched against the second fastest, the third against the fourth, the fifth against the sixth and until all riders have been paired, If there is an odd number of competitors, the slowest rider in the time trial shall ride alone.

b) In round one, riders will be timed over their respective distances. The fastest four riders will ride a second round with the fastest rider in the first round being matched against the second, and the third fastest against the fourth. The fastest and second fastest shall compete for 1st and 2nd places, and the third and fourth fastest for the 3rd and 4th places. The riders who cross the finishing line first shall be declared the winner. A rider who catches and passes his/her opponent will be declared the winner, though the winner might care to continue so as to obtain a time.

c) If there are four or less competitors, the pursuit shall be run as a time trial over one round with the three fastest over the distance being deemed the place getters.

General Rules
1. Riders shall not carry on their person or bicycle any object that could drop on to the track.

2. Riders shall not carry on their person or bicycle any audio communication system or a computer.

3. In a time trial or pursuit, riders may if they wish, ride a free wheel. However, they shall not be allowed to change gear once the race has started and shall be disqualified from the race if they do so.

4. Any rider holding up the start for reasons not acceptable to the starter shall not be permitted to start.

NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS
Prize-money/Medals/Entry Fees
For racing purposes, each grouping shall consist of a minimum of six riders. If there are five or less in a group, those riders will be allotted to ride in the next lower age group. If the total number of riders is still not realized, the process shall continue until the target of six riders is achieved. This shall apply for all groups except the lowest age group which, if not reaching the required number, shall be absorbed into the next highest age group. All riders in a combined group will compete for prize-money as one group, while medals will be awarded to riders according to their race placing in their actual five-year age grouping for Road, Criterium, and Track Championships.

In the Road Time Trial Championships, the riders with the fastest times in each age division within the combined group shall be awarded Gold, Silver and Bronze medals, with cash prizes being awarded according to the best age standard times recorded over the whole combined group.

In Track Time Trial Championships, the riders with the fastest times in each age division within the combined group shall be awarded Gold, Silver and Bronze medals, with cash prizes being awarded according to the fastest times recorded over the whole combined group.

In all championship Road, Criterium and Time Trial events, in addition to medal and cash prizes, a championship jersey shall be awarded to the winner of each age division and event, with the proviso that only one jersey shall be awarded per individual competitor over the collective events, whether they have won one or any other number of events. The same ruling shall apply for Track Championship events.

Prize-money for each grouping in each event of the Championships shall be: $75 for 1st; $50 for 2nd; $25 for 3rd,, with a prize of $15 for 4th if there are 15 or more in a group.